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Brain Words

Brain Words

Author: J. Richard Gentry

Publisher:

ISBN: 9781625312730

Category: Education

Page: 178

View: 787

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"Gentry and Ouellette are cannonballing into the reading research pool, they're making waves, and these waves are moving the field of reading forward." --From the foreward by Mark Weakland, Super Spellers The past two decades have brought giant leaps in our understanding of how the brain works. But these discoveries--and all their exciting implications--have yet to make their way into most classrooms. With the concise and readable BrainWords, you will learn how children's brains develop as they become readers and discover ways you can take concrete steps to promote this critical developmental passage. Introducing their original, research-based framework of "brain words"--dictionaries in the brain where students store and automatically access sounds, spellings, and meanings--the authors offer a wealth of information that will transform your thinking and practice: Up-to-date knowledge about reading and neurological circuitry, including evidence that spelling is at the core of the reading brain Tools to recognize what works, what doesn't, and why Practical classroom activities for daily teaching and student assessment Insights about what brain research tells us about whole language and phonics-first movements Deepened understanding of dyslexia through the enhanced lens of brain science With the insights and strategies of BrainWords, you can meet your students where they are and ensure that more of them read well, think well, and write well.

From Words to Brain

From Words to Brain

Author: Livia Blackburne

Publisher: Lion's Quill Press

ISBN: 9781940584027

Category: Medical

Page: 27

View: 574

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Once upon a time there was a girl. She was a sweet child, with bright blue eyes, a dimpled smile, and curly golden hair that tumbled over her shoulders. The most distinctive thing about her, however, was a red cloak that she wore everywhere she went. The village called her Little Red Riding Hood. What is it that transforms a page full of words into a tale that entertains us, informs us, and ultimately leaves us changed? In her essay From Words to Brain, former MIT neuroscientist Livia Blackburne explores the brain basis of reading–a skill that is incredibly complex and integral to modern culture. Using the classic fairy tale Little Red Riding Hood as a guide, Blackburne follows the story from its physical manifestation on the page, through the reader’s visual system, and ultimately into the reader’s imagination and beyond. Because the experience of reading a story does not end with the last page. That’s the point at which the real magic begins. From Words to Brain is 6700 words long, or roughly 27 printed pages.

Morphologically complex words in the mind/brain

Morphologically complex words in the mind/brain

Author: Alina Leminen

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 9782889198030

Category: Electronic book

Page: 232

View: 502

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The question of how morphologically complex words (assign-ment, listen-ed) are represented and processed in the brain has been one of the most hotly debated topics in the cognitive neuroscience of language. Do complex words engage cortical representations and processes equivalent to single lexical objects or are they processed as sequences of separate morpheme-like units? Research on morphological processing has suggested that adults make efficient use of both lexical (i.e., whole word) storage and retrieval, as well as combinatorial computation in processing morphologically complex words. Psycholinguistic studies have demonstrated that processing of complex words can be affected both by properties of the morphemes and the whole words, such as their frequency, transparency, and regularity. Furthermore, this research has been informative about the time-course of complex word recognition and production, and the role of morphological structure in these processes. At the neural level, left-hemisphere inferior frontal and superior temporal areas, and negative-going event-related potentials, have been consistently associated with morphological processing. While most previous research has been done on the recognition of morphologically complex words in adult native speakers, much less is known about neurocognitive processes involved in the on-line production of morphologically complex words, and even less on morphological processing in children and non-native speakers. Moreover, we have limited understanding of how linguistically distinct morphological processes, e.g. inflectional (listen-ed) versus derivational (assign-ment), are handled by the cortical language networks. This e-book provides an up-to-date overview of the questions currently addressed in the field of morphological processing. It highlights the significance of morphological information in language processing, both written and spoken, as assessed by a variety of methods and approaches. It also provides a comprehensive range of research and development tools for the development of new technologies.

Words Can Change Your Brain

Words Can Change Your Brain

Author: Andrew Newberg

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9781101585702

Category: Psychology

Page: 272

View: 300

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In our default state, our brains constantly get in the way of effective communication. They are lazy, angry, immature, and distracted. They can make a difficult conversation impossible. But Andrew Newberg, M.D., and Mark Waldman have discovered a powerful strategy called Compassionate Communication that allows two brains to work together as one. Using brainscans as well as data collected from workshops given to MBA students at Loyola Marymount University, and clinical data from both couples in therapy and organizations helping caregivers cope with patient suffering, Newberg and Waldman have seen that Compassionate Communication can reposition a difficult conversation to lead to a satisfying conclusion. Whether you are negotiating with your boss or your spouse, the brain works the same way and responds to the same cues. The truth, though, is that you don't have to understand how Compassionate Communication works. You just have to do it. Some of the simple and effective takeaways in this book include: • Make sure you are relaxed; yawning several times before (not during) the meeting will do the trick • Never speak for more than 20-30 seconds at a time. After that they other person's window of attention closes. • Use positive speech; you will need at least three positives to overcome the effect of every negative used • Speak slowly; pause between words. This is critical, but really hard to do. • Respond to the other person; do not shift the conversation. • Remember that the brain can only hold onto about four ideas at one time Highly effective across a wide range of settings, Compassionate Communication is an excellent tool for conflict resolution but also for simply getting your point across or delivering difficult news.

What makes written words so special to the brain?

What makes written words so special to the brain?

Author: Gui Xue

Publisher: Frontiers E-books

ISBN: 9782889193790

Category: Neurosciences. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry

Page: 268

View: 414

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Reading is an integral part of life in today’s information-driven societies. Since the pioneering work of Dejerine on “word blindness” in brain-lesioned patients, the literature has increased exponentially, from neuropsychological case reports to mechanistic accounts of word processing at the behavioural, neurofunctional and computational levels, tapping into diverse aspects of visual word processing. These studies have revealed some exciting findings about visual word processing, including how the brain learns to read, how changes in literacy impact upon word processing strategies, and whether word processing mechanisms vary across different alphabetic, logographic or artificial writing systems. Other studies have attempted to characterise typical and atypical word processes in special populations in order to explain why dyslexic brains struggle with words, how multilingualism changes the way our brains see words, and what the exact developmental signatures are that would shape the acquisition of reading skills. Exciting new insights have also emerged from recent studies that have investigated word stimuli at the system/network level, by looking for instance, at how the reading system interacts with other cognitive systems in a context-dependent fashion, how visual language stimuli are integrated into the speech processing streams, how both left and right hemispheres cooperate and interact during word processing, and what the exact contributions of subcortical and cerebellar regions to reading are. The contributions to this Research Topic highlight the latest findings regarding the different issues mentioned above, particularly how these findings can explain or model the different processes, mechanisms, pathways or cognitive strategies by which the human brain sees words. The introductory editorial, summarising the contributions included here, highlights how varieties of behavioural tests and neuroimaging techniques can be used to investigate word processing mechanisms across different alphabetic and logographic writing systems.

Creative Brain Games Perplexing Word Puzzles

Creative Brain Games Perplexing Word Puzzles

Author: Patrick Merrell

Publisher: Courier Dover Publications

ISBN: 9780486850580

Category: Games & Activities

Page: 67

View: 802

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Created by professional puzzlemaker and cartoonist Patrick Merrell, this collection of 50 original mind-benders includes acrostics, crosswords, cryptograms, word searches, wordoku, and other entertaining and challenging games. Includes solutions.

Small Steps To Big Reading

Small Steps To Big Reading

Author: Hozefa A Bhinderwala

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9789386141378

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 118

View: 108

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This book intends to motivate non-regular readers to overcome previously held inhibitionsabout reading and not let past experiences keep them away from the gift of reading. There is a deliberate attempt at illustrating the book with plenty of illustrations to tempt word-phobic readers. It helps simplify the reading process and urges the reader through simple techniques to approach reading in a manner that enhances comprehension. This entails giving up some deeply entrenched old habits that are counterproductive and equipping ourselves with better skills. To achieve this, beyond just tips, the book also provides physical tools that help the reader overcome old habits like regression, lack of preview, subvocalizing, slow reading, and self-doubt. It also helps the reader to rise above the bare minimum reading limited to their subject and become flexible readers capable of changing gears when required. The benefits of being well read and being able to fight guilt are also highlighted with the intention that having completed this book urges the non- regular reader to continue in their quest of more fulfilling reading. This book intends to help people acquire an altered approach to reading so that parents and significant caretakers in the lives of young learners do not inadvertently demotivate budding readers. An investment of 100 minutes of your time could make a positive change in how you read and what you do hereafter.

At the doors of lexical access: The importance of the first 250 milliseconds in reading

At the doors of lexical access: The importance of the first 250 milliseconds in reading

Author: Jon Andoni Dunabeitia

Publisher: Frontiers E-books

ISBN: 9782889192601

Category: Psychology

Page: 113

View: 576

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Correct word identification and processing is a prerequisite for accurate reading, and decades of psycholinguistic and neuroscientific research have shown that the magical moments of visual word recognition are short-lived and markedly fast. The time window in which a given letter string passes from being a mere sequence of printed curves and strokes to acquiring the word status takes around one third of a second. In a few hundred milliseconds, a skilled reader recognizes an isolated word and carries out a number of underlying processes, such as the encoding of letter position and letter identity, and lexico-semantic information retrieval. However, the precise manner (and order) in which these processes occur (or co-occur) is a matter of contention subject to empirical research. There’s no agreement regarding the precise timing of some of the essential processes that guide visual word processing, such as precise letter identification, letter position assignment or sub-word unit processing (bigrams, trigrams, syllables, morphemes), among others. Which is the sequence of processes that lead to lexical access? How do these and other processes interact with each other during the early moments of word processing? Do these processes occur in a serial fashion or do they take place in parallel? Are these processes subject to mutual interaction principles? Is feedback allowed for within the earliest stages of word identification? And ultimately, when does the reader’s brain effectively identify a given word? A vast number of questions remain open, and this Research Topic will cover some of them, giving the readership the opportunity to understand how the scientific community faces the problem of modeling the early stages of word identification according to the latest neuroscientific findings. The present Research Topic aimed to combine recent experimental evidence on early word processing from different techniques together with comprehensive reviews of the current work directions, in order to create a landmark forum in which experts in the field defined the state of the art and future directions. We were willing to receive submissions of empirical as well as theoretical and review articles based on different computational and neuroscience-oriented methodologies. We especially encouraged researchers primarily using electrophysiological or magnetoencephalographic techniques as well as eye-tracking to participate, given that these techniques provide us with the opportunity to uncover the mysteries of lexical access allowing for a fine-grained time-course analysis. The main focus of interest concerned the processes that are held within the initial 250-300 milliseconds after word presentation, covering areas that link basic visuo-attentional systems with linguistic mechanisms.

Crown of Ruin

Crown of Ruin

Author: Keary Taylor

Publisher: Keary Taylor Book, INC

ISBN:

Category: Fiction

Page: 258

View: 134

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Logan has returned to Roter Himmel. Once a peaceful haven for the Royals, it is now a kingdom of chaos and distrust. The people may love their queen, but she has never ruled them on her own. Sevan has seen Cyrus work miracles long ago, and learned his methods herself. His curse has sustained stronger than death before but the visage of Cyrus’ demise is undeniable. Still, Logan refuses to believe this is the end. Cyrus keeps appearing to her in strange dreams, rambling that she must prepare—that the day is coming when night will rule the day. While the entire world of vampires watches, Logan will take on the weight of the crown, the certainty of impending change, and the threat of war. They all should have known better than to test her. She’s had multiple lifetimes to prepare for this… All hail the Queen.