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Health Literacy in Clinical Research

Health Literacy in Clinical Research

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309499699

Category: Medical

Page: 121

View: 210

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Because of the individualized nature of drug and therapeutic treatments, clinical trials require participants who represent the diversity of the patient base. If early trials do not have a broad patient base, it can be difficult to know who may or may not benefit from or respond to a treatment later. In addition to diversity in recruitment, informed consent during participation is also crucial. If participants do not fully understand what they are signing up for, they may become confused, mistrustful, or drop out of a trial altogether, confusing investigators and possibly affecting the generalizability of a study. To explore the incorporation of health literacy practices into clinical trials, the Roundtable on Health Literacy convened a workshop titled Clinical Trials: Practice and Impact on April 11, 2019, in Washington, DC. The workshop presentations and discussion centered around issues related to the challenges or barriers for diverse populations' participation in clinical trials, best practices for clinical trial sites and researchers incorporating health literacy practices, and effective health literacy strategies for clear communication with participants. This publication summarizes the presentation and discussion of the workshop.

Health Literacy in Clinical Research

Health Literacy in Clinical Research

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309499729

Category: Medical

Page: 120

View: 330

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Because of the individualized nature of drug and therapeutic treatments, clinical trials require participants who represent the diversity of the patient base. If early trials do not have a broad patient base, it can be difficult to know who may or may not benefit from or respond to a treatment later. In addition to diversity in recruitment, informed consent during participation is also crucial. If participants do not fully understand what they are signing up for, they may become confused, mistrustful, or drop out of a trial altogether, confusing investigators and possibly affecting the generalizability of a study. To explore the incorporation of health literacy practices into clinical trials, the Roundtable on Health Literacy convened a workshop titled Clinical Trials: Practice and Impact on April 11, 2019, in Washington, DC. The workshop presentations and discussion centered around issues related to the challenges or barriers for diverse populations' participation in clinical trials, best practices for clinical trial sites and researchers incorporating health literacy practices, and effective health literacy strategies for clear communication with participants. This publication summarizes the presentation and discussion of the workshop.

Health Literacy in Clinical Practice and Public Health

Health Literacy in Clinical Practice and Public Health

Author: R.A. Logan

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 9781643680750

Category: Medical

Page: 616

View: 726

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“Health literacy is the ultimate global currency of health and well-being. Without health literacy, medicine fails, public health fails, and people pay the cost for these failures with their lives. As this book goes to press, the world is confronted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Improving health literacy becomes increasingly important if we are to successfully confront the challenges that stress our systems of medicine and public health like never before.” (Richard H. Carmona, M.D., M.P.H., FACS, former Surgeon General of the United States, in his foreword to this book.) Two years ago, HTI published the book Health Literacy: New Directions in Research, Theory and Practice. Together with that earlier volume, this book: Health Literacy in Clinical Practice and Public Health: New Initiatives and Lessons Learned at the Intersection with other Disciplines, strives to enumerate and expand our understanding of the multidisciplinary connections which underpin the field of health literacy. The book’s balance between research and practice is a response to the feedback the editors received about the previous publication, which focused more on HL theory and research. With reports of specific health literacy research initiatives and interventions, particularly in clinical practice and public health, the book covers contemporary health literacy research and practice and is divided into three sections. Section one explores health literacy’s capacity to foster progress in clinical practice and public health; section two provides insights into health literacy initiatives and lessons learned from diverse healthcare stakeholders; and section three examines health literacy’s similarities with – and differences from – related health research disciplines. The book sets the practice and research of health literacy on an evidence-based, thoughtful, effective, efficient, and applied course. As Dr Richard Carmona says in his foreword: “It is enthusiastically recommended for all health and medical practitioners and researchers.”

Optimizing Health Literacy for Improved Clinical Practices

Optimizing Health Literacy for Improved Clinical Practices

Author: Papalois, Vassilios E.

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 9781522540755

Category: Medical

Page: 338

View: 172

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Scientific evidence from different countries around the globe shows that those with low or inadequate health-related knowledge and skills include all ages, social, and economic backgrounds. The consequences of this inadequacy simultaneously affect individuals, healthcare systems, and society in many ways, such as healthcare quality and cost. Research on health literacy can provide insight on how to improve the communication of health issues, raise awareness, and promote the lifelong learning of patients and healthcare professionals. Optimizing Health Literacy for Improved Clinical Practices examines the latest advances in providing and helping patients and medical professionals to understand basic health information and the services that are most appropriate. Featuring coverage on a broad range of topics such as patient engagement, mobile health, and health communication, this book is geared towards medical professionals, hospital adminstrators, healthcare providers, academicians, and researchers in the field.

Informed Consent and Health Literacy

Informed Consent and Health Literacy

Author: Institute of Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309317306

Category: Medical

Page: 192

View: 234

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Informed consent - the process of communication between a patient or research subject and a physician or researcher that results in the explicit agreement to undergo a specific medical intervention - is an ethical concept based on the principle that all patients and research subjects should understand and agree to the potential consequences of the clinical care they receive. Regulations that govern the attainment of informed consent for treatment and research are crucial to ensuring that medical care and research are conducted in an ethical manner and with the utmost respect for individual preferences and dignity. These regulations, however, often require - or are perceived to require - that informed consent documents and related materials contain language that is beyond the comprehension level of most patients and study participants. To explore what actions can be taken to help close the gap between what is required in the informed consent process and communicating it in a health-literate and meaningful manner to individuals, the Institute of Medicine's Roundtable on Health Literacy convened a one-day public workshop featuring presentations and discussions that examine the implications of health literacy for informed consent for both research involving human subjects and treatment of patients. Topics covered in this workshop included an overview of the ethical imperative to gain informed consent from patients and research participants, a review of the current state and best practices for informed consent in research and treatment, the connection between poor informed consent processes and minority underrepresentation in research, new approaches to informed consent that reflect principles of health literacy, and the future of informed consent in the treatment and research settings. Informed Consent and Health Literacy is the summary of the presentations and discussion of the workshop.

Health Outcomes in a Foreign Land

Health Outcomes in a Foreign Land

Author: Bernard Kwabi-Addo

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319558653

Category: Medical

Page: 324

View: 566

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This stimulating volume uses multiple lenses to analyze the complex causes of health disparities affecting minorities, in particular African Americans, and explains how this knowledge can be used to reduce their destructive effects. Pinpointing genetic, non-genetic, and epigenetic factors underlying health conditions common to the population—including heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer—the author traces intricate links among these factors in the current environmental and social context. The section on non-genetic factors in health disparities, such as social determinants and health behaviors, adds depth to the ongoing discourse on public health and health policy objectives. And the chapters on gene/environment interactions outline the vast potential for developing new multidisciplinary frontiers in shrinking health inequities and personalizing care. Included in the coverage: The African diaspora and disease-specific disparities The genetic basis to health disparities The role of epigenetics Economic factors and health Psychological issues and how they affect disparities Gene-environment interactions in health disparities Race, a biological or social concept Compelling and accessible, Health Outcomes in a Foreign Land will challenge and inspire medical students, epidemiologists, public health professionals, biomedical research scientists, and social scientists to go farther in their work. A wider audience would include policymakers, government officials, nurses, physicians, lawyers, economists, community outreach investigators, and interested general readers.

International Handbook of Health Literacy

International Handbook of Health Literacy

Author: Okan, Orkan

Publisher: Policy Press

ISBN: 9781447344513

Category: Medical

Page: 768

View: 306

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Available Open Access under CC-BY-NC license. Health literacy addresses a range of social dimensions of health including knowledge, navigation, communication as well as individual and organizational skills for accessing, understanding, evaluating and using of information. Especially over the past decade, health literacy has become a major public health concern globally as an asset for promoting health, wellbeing and sustainable development. This comprehensive handbook provides an invaluable overview of current international thinking about health literacy, highlighting cutting edge research, policy and practice in the field. With a diverse team of contributors, the book addresses health literacy across the life-span and offers insights from different populations and settings. Providing a wide range of major findings, the book outlines current discourse in the field and examines necessary future dialogues and new perspectives.

Health Literacy

Health Literacy

Author: Institute of Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309091176

Category: Medical

Page: 367

View: 669

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To maintain their own health and the health of their families and communities, consumers rely heavily on the health information that is available to them. This information is at the core of the partnerships that patients and their families forge with today's complex modern health systems. This information may be provided in a variety of forms â€" ranging from a discussion between a patient and a health care provider to a health promotion advertisement, a consent form, or one of many other forms of health communication common in our society. Yet millions of Americans cannot understand or act upon this information. To address this problem, the field of health literacy brings together research and practice from diverse fields including education, health services, and social and cultural sciences, and the many organizations whose actions can improve or impede health literacy. Health Literacy: Prescription to End Confusion examines the body of knowledge that applies to the field of health literacy, and recommends actions to promote a health literate society. By examining the extent of limited health literacy and the ways to improve it, we can improve the health of individuals and populations.

Service Delivery for Vulnerable Populations

Service Delivery for Vulnerable Populations

Author: Dr. Steven A Estrine, PhD

Publisher: Springer Publishing Company

ISBN: 0826118569

Category: Social Science

Page: 352

View: 433

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"[This book] provides a comprehensive understanding of the opportunities for all of us working with vulnerable populations to develop thoughtful, workable programs. The topics presented are not limited to the severely mentally ill, but it is an encyclopedia of resources and creative options for service to veterans, the homeless, the elderly. This book challenges us to think creatively and develop programs and services for the people in our society who are most often overlooked and forgotten." Alan E. Siegel, Ed.D. Chief, Mental Health Service, MIT Assistant Clinical Professor of Psychology, Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School "[This book is] the perfect primer for anyone seeking to understand the latest trends in psychiatric care for vulnerable people today." Ted Houghton Supportive Housing Network of New York "It is rare for a single book to discuss innovative practices that affect such a broad array of vulnerable groups, including children and families, older people and people with severe mental illness. Together, these essays allow readers to identify similarities and differences with regard to the needs of these populations, the conditions that may exacerbate their problems, and the adequacy of the programs and services designed to address their needs. It also may help readers identify lessons from innovations targeted at one group that may be helpful in another policy arena." Michael K. Gusmano, PhD Research Scholar The Hastings Center Vulnerable populations typically present with multiple overlapping issues, such as poverty, substance abuse, mental illness, or other health issues that require varying services and treatments. This book provides students and professionals in health care and service delivery with innovative programs and models to address the needs of these vulnerable populations. This essential text offers new approaches to program design, service delivery, evaluation, and funding. Strategies for introducing these innovations-such as cross-system coordination and blended funding-are described in detail, using real, evidence-based programs from around the country as examples. Experts from across program delivery systems, as well as from academia and government, share their practice experience. Key features: Addresses innovative services for children and youth with multiple mental health and/or substance abuse needs Describes health care needs for LGBTQ youth and adults Examines housing issues for persons with psychiatric disabilities, veterans, and older adults Offers innovative program approaches for refugees, older adults, and the disabled Discusses the impact of new media, health literacy, and the consumer/survivor movement on service delivery

Pragmatic Randomized Clinical Trials

Pragmatic Randomized Clinical Trials

Author: Cynthia J. Girman

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780128176641

Category: Science

Page: 498

View: 99

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Pragmatic Randomized Clinical Trials Using Primary Data Collection and Electronic Health Records addresses the practical aspects and challenges of the design, implementation, and dissemination of pragmatic randomized trials, also sometimes referred to as practical or hybrid randomized trials. While less restrictive and more generalizable than traditional randomized controlled trials, such trials have specific challenges which are addressed in this book. The book contains chapters encompassing common designs along with advantages and limitations of such designs, analytic aspects in planning trials and estimating sample size, and how to use patient partners to help design and operationalize pragmatic randomized trials. Pragmatic trials conducted using primary data collection and trials embedded in electronic health records - including electronic medical records and administrative insurance claims - are addressed. This comprehensive resource is valuable not only for pharmacoepidemiologists, biostatisticians and clinical researchers, but also across the biomedical field for those who are interested in applying pragmatic randomized clinical trials in their research. • Addresses typical designs and challenges of pragmatic randomized clinical trials (pRCTs) • Encompasses analytic aspects of such trials • Discusses real cases on operational challenges in launching and conducting pRCTs in electronic health records

Nurse as Educator: Principles of Teaching and Learning for Nursing Practice

Nurse as Educator: Principles of Teaching and Learning for Nursing Practice

Author: Susan B. Bastable

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning

ISBN: 9781284229271

Category: Medical

Page: 746

View: 676

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"Nurse as Educator: Principles of Teaching and Learning for Nursing Practice, Sixth Edition prepares nurse educators, clinical nurse specialists, and nurse practitioners and students for their ever-increasing role in patient teaching, health education, and health promotion. One of the most outstanding and unique features of this text is that it focuses on multiple audiences therefore making it applicable to both undergraduate and graduate nursing courses.The Sixth Edition features coverage of relevant topics in nursing education and health promotion such as health literacy, teaching people with disabilities, the impact of gender and socioeconomics on learning, technology for teaching and learning, and the ethical, legal, and economic foundations of the educational process"--

Envisioning a Transformed Clinical Trials Enterprise in the United States

Envisioning a Transformed Clinical Trials Enterprise in the United States

Author: Institute of Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309253154

Category: Medical

Page: 248

View: 341

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There is growing recognition that the United States' clinical trials enterprise (CTE) faces great challenges. There is a gap between what is desired - where medical care is provided solely based on high quality evidence - and the reality - where there is limited capacity to generate timely and practical evidence for drug development and to support medical treatment decisions. With the need for transforming the CTE in the U.S. becoming more pressing, the IOM Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation held a two-day workshop in November 2011, bringing together leaders in research and health care. The workshop focused on how to transform the CTE and discussed a vision to make the enterprise more efficient, effective, and fully integrated into the health care system. Key issue areas addressed at the workshop included: the development of a robust clinical trials workforce, the alignment of cultural and financial incentives for clinical trials, and the creation of a sustainable infrastructure to support a transformed CTE. This document summarizes the workshop.