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Maya Calendar Origins

Maya Calendar Origins

Author: Prudence M. Rice

Publisher: University of Texas Press

ISBN: 0292774494

Category: Social Science

Page: 280

View: 891

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In Maya Political Science: Time, Astronomy, and the Cosmos, Prudence M. Rice proposed a new model of Maya political organization in which geopolitical seats of power rotated according to a 256-year calendar cycle known as the May. This fundamental connection between timekeeping and Maya political organization sparked Rice's interest in the origins of the two major calendars used by the ancient lowland Maya, one 260 days long, and the other having 365 days. In Maya Calendar Origins, she presents a provocative new thesis about the origins and development of the calendrical system. Integrating data from anthropology, archaeology, art history, astronomy, ethnohistory, myth, and linguistics, Rice argues that the Maya calendars developed about a millennium earlier than commonly thought, around 1200 BC, as an outgrowth of observations of the natural phenomena that scheduled the movements of late Archaic hunter-gatherer-collectors throughout what became Mesoamerica. She asserts that an understanding of the cycles of weather and celestial movements became the basis of power for early rulers, who could thereby claim "control" over supernatural cosmic forces. Rice shows how time became materialized—transformed into status objects such as monuments that encoded calendrical or temporal concerns—as well as politicized, becoming the foundation for societal order, political legitimization, and wealth. Rice's research also sheds new light on the origins of the Popol Vuh, which, Rice believes, encodes the history of the development of the Mesoamerican calendars. She also explores the connections between the Maya and early Olmec and Izapan cultures in the Isthmian region, who shared with the Maya the cosmovision and ideology incorporated into the calendrical systems.

The Mayan and Other Ancient Calendars

The Mayan and Other Ancient Calendars

Author: Geoff Stray

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA

ISBN: 9780802716347

Category: Art

Page: 57

View: 584

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A much-needed guide to the Mayan calendar systems and the essentials of calendar development throughout the world.

The Maya Apocalypse and Its Western Roots

The Maya Apocalypse and Its Western Roots

Author: Matthew Restall

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9781538154991

Category: History

Page: 169

View: 293

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"Offers an accessible readable survey of apocalyptic thinking in two civilizations-Western and Maya-driven by a clear and compelling argument. The authors explore why end-of-times anxiety and anticipation is so deeply rooted and persistent in Western civilization"--

The Ancient Maya

The Ancient Maya

Author: Heather Irene McKillop

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 9781576076965

Category: History

Page: 453

View: 264

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Thanks to powerful innovations in archaeology and other types of historical research, we now have a picture of everyday life in the Mayan empire that turns the long-accepted conventional wisdom on its head. * Includes numerous illustrations and drawings plus depictions of important artifacts such as the murals of Bonampak and the hieroglyphic stairway of Copan * Provides detailed maps of major Maya cities as well as other research sites

Encyclopedia of the Ancient Maya

Encyclopedia of the Ancient Maya

Author: Walter R. T. Witschey

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9780759122864

Category: History

Page: 540

View: 399

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Encyclopedia of the Ancient Maya provides an A-to-Z overview of the ancient Maya culture from its inception to the Spanish Conquest. Exploring Maya society, celebrations, and achievements, as well as new insights into Maya culture and collapse, this is a sophisticated yet accessible introduction suitable for students and general readers.

Cosmology, Calendars, and Horizon-Based Astronomy in Ancient Mesoamerica

Cosmology, Calendars, and Horizon-Based Astronomy in Ancient Mesoamerica

Author: Anne S. Dowd

Publisher: University Press of Colorado

ISBN: 9781457193750

Category: Social Science

Page: 440

View: 292

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Cosmology, Calendars, and Horizon-Based Astronomy in Ancient Mesoamerica is an interdisciplinary tour de force that establishes the critical role astronomy played in the religious and civic lives of the ancient peoples of Mesoamerica. Providing extraordinary examples of how Precolumbian peoples merged ideas about the cosmos with those concerning calendar and astronomy, the volume showcases the value of detailed examinations of astronomical data for understanding ancient cultures. The volume is divided into three sections: investigations into Mesoamerican horizon-based astronomy, the cosmological principles expressed in Mesoamerican religious imagery and rituals related to astronomy, and the aspects of Mesoamerican calendars related to archaeoastronomy. It also provides cutting-edge research on diverse topics such as records of calendar and horizon-based astronomical observation (like the Dresden and Borgia codices), iconography of burial assemblages, architectural alignment studies, urban planning, and counting or measuring devices. Contributors—who are among the most respected in their fields— explore new dimensions in Mesoamerican timekeeping and skywatching in the Olmec, Maya, Teotihuacano, Zapotec, and Aztec cultures. It will be of great interest to students and scholars of anthropology, archaeology, art history, and astronomy.

The Adventure of the Human Intellect

The Adventure of the Human Intellect

Author: Kurt A. Raaflaub

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119162599

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 280

View: 390

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The Adventure of the Human Intellect presents the latest scholarship on the beginnings of intellectual history on a broad scope, encompassing ten eminent ancient or early civilizations from both the Old and New Worlds. Borrows themes from The Intellectual Adventure of Ancient Man (1946), updating an old topic with a new approach and up-to-date theoretical underpinning, evidence, and scholarship Provides a broad scope of studies, including discussion of highly developed ancient or early civilizations in China, India, West Asia, the Mediterranean, and the Americas Examines the world view of ten ancient or early societies, reconstructed from their own texts, concerning the place of human beings in society and state, in nature and cosmos, in space and time, in life and death, and in relation to those in power and the world of the divine Considers a diversity of sources representing a wide array of particular responses to differing environments, circumstances, and intellectual challenges Reflects a more inclusive and nuanced historiographical attitude with respect to non-elites, gender, and local variations Brings together leading specialists in the field, and is edited by an internationally renowned scholar

Calculating Brilliance

Calculating Brilliance

Author: Gerardo Aldana

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 9780816542208

Category: Science

Page: 472

View: 527

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This book contextualizes the discovery of a Venus astronomical pattern by a female Mayan astronomer at Chich'en Itza and the discovery's later adaptation and application at Mayapan. Calculating Brilliance brings different intellectual threads together across time and space, from the Classic to the Postclassic, the colonial period to the twenty-first century to offer a new vision for understanding Mayan astronomy.

2012

2012

Author: Joseph Gelfer

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317544142

Category: Religion

Page: 212

View: 577

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21 December 2012 was believed to mark the end of the thirteenth B'ak'tun cycle in the Long Count of the Mayan calendar. Many people believed this date to mark the end of the world or, at the very least, a shift to a new form of global consciousness. Examining how much of the phenomenon is based on the historical record and how much is contemporary fiction, the book explores the landscape of the modern apocalyptic imagination, the economics of the spiritual marketplace, the commodification of countercultural values, and the cult of celebrity.

Human Adaptation in Ancient Mesoamerica

Human Adaptation in Ancient Mesoamerica

Author: Nancy Gonlin

Publisher: University Press of Colorado

ISBN: 9781607323921

Category: Social Science

Page: 400

View: 494

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This volume explores the dynamics of human adaptation to social, political, ideological, economic, and environmental factors in Mesoamerica and includes a wide array of topics, such as the hydrological engineering behind Teotihuacan’s layout, the complexities of agriculture and sustainability in the Maya lowlands, and the nuanced history of abandonment among different lineages and households in Maya centers. The authors aptly demonstrate how culture is the mechanism that allows people to adapt to a changing world, and they address how ecological factors, particularly land and water, intersect with nonmaterial and material manifestations of cultural complexity. Contributors further illustrate the continuing utility of the cultural ecological perspective in framing research on adaptations of ancient civilizations. This book celebrates the work of Dr. David Webster, an influential Penn State archaeologist and anthropologist of the Maya region, and highlights human adaptation in Mesoamerica through the scientific lenses of anthropological archaeology and cultural ecology. Contributors include Elliot M. Abrams, Christopher J. Duffy, Susan Toby Evans, Kirk D. French, AnnCorinne Freter, Nancy Gonlin, George R. Milner, Zachary Nelson, Deborah L. Nichols, David M. Reed, Don S. Rice, Prudence M. Rice, Rebecca Storey, Kirk Damon Straight, David Webster, Stephen L. Whittington, Randolph J. Widmer, John D. Wingard, and W. Scott Zeleznik.

The 2012 Story

The 2012 Story

Author: John Major Jenkins

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9781101148822

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 496

View: 591

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On December 21, 2012, the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar, a 5,125-year cycle calendar system pioneered by the Maya, will come to an end. At the same time, the earth, the sun, and the center of the galaxy will come together in an extremely rare cosmic alignment. More and more people believe that the world as we know it will experience a transformation in 2012, but few are aware of the complete history or significance of the date. John Major Jenkins, among the most authoritative voices of the 2012 movement, has written a definitive explanation of one of the most thought-provoking phenomena of our time. Drawing from his own groundbreaking research (including his involvement in the modern reconstruction of Mayan 2012 cosmology) and more than two decades of extensive study of Mayan culture, Jenkins has created the crucial guide to understanding the story of 2012—an essential overview of the history, theory, cultures, and personalities that have brought this extraordinary idea into modern awareness. Jenkins provides illuminating answers to some of the most-asked questions about 2012, including: - How did the early Maya devise the calendar that gives us the cycle ending in 2012, and how does it work? - How did the calendar come to be rediscovered and reconstructed in our era? - What controversies and intrigues surround the topic, and what do scholars and researchers have to say about them? - How can we cut through all the noise about 2012 and gain true wisdom from the Mayan teachings about this moment?

The Oxford Handbook of Mesoamerican Archaeology

The Oxford Handbook of Mesoamerican Archaeology

Author: Deborah L. Nichols

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199875009

Category: History

Page: 1000

View: 978

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The Oxford Handbook of Mesoamerican Archaeology provides a current and comprehensive guide to the recent and on-going archaeology of Mesoamerica. Though the emphasis is on prehispanic societies, this Handbook also includes coverage of important new work by archaeologists on the Colonial and Republican periods. Unique among recent works, the text brings together in a single volume article-length regional syntheses and topical overviews written by active scholars in the field of Mesoamerican archaeology. The first section of the Handbook provides an overview of recent history and trends of Mesoamerica and articles on national archaeology programs and practice in Central America and Mexico written by archaeologists from these countries. These are followed by regional syntheses organized by time period, beginning with early hunter-gatherer societies and the first farmers of Mesoamerica and concluding with a discussion of the Spanish Conquest and frontiers and peripheries of Mesoamerica. Topical and comparative articles comprise the remainder of Handbook. They cover important dimensions of prehispanic societies--from ecology, economy, and environment to social and political relations--and discuss significant methodological contributions, such as geo-chemical source studies, as well as new theories and diverse theoretical perspectives. The Handbook concludes with a section on the archaeology of the Spanish conquest and the Colonial and Republican periods to connect the prehispanic, proto-historic, and historic periods. This volume will be a must-read for students and professional archaeologists, as well as other scholars including historians, art historians, geographers, and ethnographers with an interest in Mesoamerica.