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Standard Soil Methods for Long-term Ecological Research

Standard Soil Methods for Long-term Ecological Research

Author: G. P. Robertson

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780195120837

Category: Science

Page: 481

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The goal of the volume is to facilitate cross-site synthesis and evaluation of ecosystem processes. The book is the first broadly based compendium of standardized soil measurement methods and will be an invaluable resource for ecologists, agronomists, and soil scientists."--BOOK JACKET.

Standard Soil Methods for Long-Term Ecological Research

Standard Soil Methods for Long-Term Ecological Research

Author: G. Philip Robertson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198028260

Category: Science

Page: 480

View: 322

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Standardized methods and measurements are crucial for ecological research, particularly in long-term ecological studies where the projects are by nature collaborative and where it can be difficult to distinguish signs of environmental change from the effects of differing methodologies. This second volume in the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network Series addresses these issues directly by providing a comprehensive standardized set of protocols for measuring soil properties. The goal of the volume is to facilitate cross-site synthesis and evaluation of ecosystem processes. Chapters cover methods for studying physical and chemical properties of soils, soil biological properties, and soil organisms, and they include work from many leaders in the field. The book is the first broadly based compendium of standardized soil measurement methods and will be an invaluable resource for ecologists, agronomists, and soil scientists.

Soil and Plant Analysis for Forest Ecosystem Characterization

Soil and Plant Analysis for Forest Ecosystem Characterization

Author: Daniel John Vogt

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 9783110290479

Category: Science

Page: 240

View: 723

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This handbook provides an overview of physical, chemical and biological methods used to analyze soils and plant tissue using an ecosystem perspective. The current emphasis on climate change has recognized the importance of including soil carbon as part of our carbon budgets. Methods to assess soils must be ecosystem based if they are to have utility for policy makers and managers wanting to change soil carbon and nutrient pools. Most of the texts on soil analyis treat agriculture and not forest soils and these methods do not transfer readily to forests because of their different chemistry and physical properties. This manual presents methods for soil and plant analysis with the ecosystem level approach that will reduce the risk that poor management decisions will be made in forests. This manual was intended for the instructors that teach students soil and plant analyses; however it can also be used by the research laboratories and by environmental scientists.The laboratory procedures in this manual are outlined in easy-to-follow steps and frequently accompanied with examples of calculations, questions to answer, and also a blank data sheet to use. These methods used in this manual can be used on soil and plant tissues found in agricultural, horticulture, forestry, urban, and natural lands.

Field Measurements for Forest Carbon Monitoring

Field Measurements for Forest Carbon Monitoring

Author: Coeli M Hoover

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402085062

Category: Science

Page: 240

View: 587

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In the summer of 2003, a workshop was held in Portsmouth, NH, to discuss land measurement techniques for the North American Carbon Program. Over 40 sci- tists representing government agencies, academia and nonprofit research organi- tions located in Canada, the US and Mexico participated. During the course of the workshop a number of topics were discussed, with an emphasis on the following: • The need for an intermediate tier of carbon measurements. This level of study would be more extensive than state-level inventories of the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Program, but less detailed than intensive ecos- tem studies sites such as those in Long Term Ecological Research network. This tier would ideally provide a basis to link and scale remote sensing measurements and inventory data, and supply data required to parameterize existing models (see Wofsy and Harriss 2002, Denning et al. 2005). • The design criteria that such a network of sites should meet. The network and s- pling design should be standardized, but flexible enough to be applied across North America. The design also needs to be efficient enough to be implemented without the need for large field crews, yet robust enough to provide useful information. Finally, the spatial scale must permit easy linkage to remotely sensed data. • The key variables that should be measured at each site, and the frequency of measurement.

Long-Term Ecological Research

Long-Term Ecological Research

Author: Michael R. Willig

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199380220

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 970

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The Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program is, in a sense, an experiment to transform the nature of science, and represents one of the most effective mechanisms for catalyzing comprehensive site-based research that is collaborative, multidisciplinary, and long-term in nature. The scientific contributions of the Program are prodigious, but the broader impacts of participation have not been examined in a formal way. This book captures the consequences of participation in the Program on the perspectives, attitudes, and practices of environmental scientists. The edited volume comprises three sections. The first section includes two chapters that provide an overview of the history, goals, mission, and inner workings of the LTER network of sites. The second section comprises three dozen retrospective essays by scientists, data managers or educators who represent a broad spectrum of LTER sites from deserts to tropical forests and from arctic to marine ecosystems. Each essay addresses the same series of probing questions to uncover the extent to which participation has affected the ways that scientists conduct research, educate students, or provide outreach to the public. The final section encompasses 5 chapters, whose authors are biophysical scientists, historians, behavioral scientists, or social scientists. This section analyzes, integrates, or synthesizes the content of the previous chapters from multiple perspectives and uncovers emergent themes and future directions.

The Challenges of Long Term Ecological Research: A Historical Analysis

The Challenges of Long Term Ecological Research: A Historical Analysis

Author: Robert B. Waide

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030669331

Category: Science

Page: 478

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This volume explores the challenges of sustaining long-term ecological research through a historical analysis of the Long Term Ecological Research Program created by the U.S. National Science Foundation in 1980. The book examines reasons for the creation of the Program, an overview of its 40-year history, and in-depth historical analysis of selected sites. Themes explored include the broader impact of this program on society, including its relevance to environmental policy and understanding global climate change, the challenge of extending ecosystem ecology into urban environments, and links to creative arts and humanities projects. A major theme is the evolution of a new type of network science, involving comparative studies, innovation in information management, creation of socio-ecological frameworks, development of governance structures, and formation of an International Long Term Ecological Research Network with worldwide reach. The book’s themes will interest historians, philosophers and social scientists interested in ecological and environmental sciences, as well as researchers across many disciplines who are involved in long-term ecological research.

Methods in Ecosystem Science

Methods in Ecosystem Science

Author: Osvaldo E. Sala

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461212249

Category: Science

Page: 421

View: 100

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Ecology at the ecosystem level has both necessitated and benefited from new methods and technologies as well as those adapted from other disciplines. With the ascendancy of ecosystem science and management, the need has arisen for a comprehensive treatment of techniques used in this rapidly-growing field. Methods in Ecosystem Science answers that need by synthesizing the advantages, disadvantages and tradeoffs associated with the most commonly used techniques in both aquatic and terrestrial research. The book is divided into sections addressing carbon and energy dynamics, nutrient and water dynamics, manipulative ecosystem experiements and tools to synthesize our understanding of ecosystems. Detailed information about various methods will help researchers choose the most appropriate methods for their particular studies. Prominent scientists discuss how tools from a variety of disciplines can be used in ecosystem science at different scales.

Earth System Monitoring

Earth System Monitoring

Author: John Orcutt

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461456841

Category: Science

Page: 518

View: 481

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Modern Earth System Monitoring represents a fundamental change in the way scientists study the Earth System. In Oceanography, for the past two centuries, ships have provided the platforms for observing. Expeditions on the continents and Earth’s poles are land-based analogues. Fundamental understanding of current systems, climate, natural hazards, and ecosystems has been greatly advanced. While these approaches have been remarkably successful, the need to establish measurements over time can only be made using Earth observations and observatories with exacting standards and continuous data. The 19 peer-reviewed contributions in this volume provide early insights into this emerging view of Earth in both space and time in which change is a critical component of our growing understanding.

Creating and Restoring Wetlands

Creating and Restoring Wetlands

Author: Christopher Craft

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780128239827

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 664

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Creating and Restoring Wetlands: From Theory to Practice, Second Edition describes the challenges and opportunities relating to the restoration of freshwater and estuarine wetlands in natural, agricultural, and urban environments in the coming century. This second edition is structured by clearly defined chapters based on specific wetland types (e.g. Peatlands, Mangroves) and with a consistent and coherent organization for ease of discoverability. The table of contents is divided into four main subjects: Foundations, Restoration of Freshwater Wetlands, Restoration of Estuarine Wetlands, and From Theory to Practice, each with multiple chapters. Part 1, Foundations, contains chapters describing definitions of wetlands, ecological theory used to guide restoration, and considerations on where to implement restoration on the landscape. In Parts 2 and 3, restoration of specific freshwater (marshes, forests, peatlands) and estuarine (tidal marshes, mangroves) wetlands are described. Part 4, From Theory to Practice, contains chapters describing performance standards to gauge success of projects and case studies describing small-scale and large-scale restoration projects of various freshwater and estuarine wetlands. Each chapter contains clearly labeled sections which assist the reader to quickly and easily key in on the subject matter that they are seeking. The approach of Creating and Restoring Wetlands is unique in that, in each chapter, it links ecological theory important to ecosystem restoration with practical techniques to undertake and implement successful wetland restoration projects, including recommendations for performance standards to gauge success as well as realistic expectations and timescales for achieving success. Each chapter ends with a summary table describing keys to ensure success for a given wetland ecosystem. Each chapter ends with a summary table describing keys to ensure success for a given wetland ecosystem Written by a single author, providing a consistent structure that is coherent, cohesive and well referenced Contains case studies of small- and large-scale restoration activities ensuring relevance to individuals and organizations

The Ecology of Agricultural Landscapes

The Ecology of Agricultural Landscapes

Author: Stephen K. Hamilton

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199773480

Category: Science

Page: 448

View: 687

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Evidence has been mounting for some time that intensive row-crop agriculture as practiced in developed countries may not be environmentally sustainable, with concerns increasingly being raised about climate change, implications for water quantity and quality, and soil degradation. This volume synthesizes two decades of research on the sustainability of temperate, row-crop ecosystems of the Midwestern United States. The overarching hypothesis guiding this work has been that more biologically based management practices could greatly reduce negative impacts while maintaining sufficient productivity to meet demands for food, fiber and fuel, but that roadblocks to their adoption persist because we lack a comprehensive understanding of their benefits and drawbacks. The research behind this book, based at the Kellogg Biological Station (Michigan State University) and conducted under the aegis of the Long-term Ecological Research network, is structured on a foundation of large-scale field experiments that explore alternatives to conventional, chemical-intensive agriculture. Studies have explored the biophysical underpinnings of crop productivity, the interactions of crop ecosystems with the hydrology and biodiversity of the broader landscapes in which they lie, farmers' views about alternative practices, economic valuation of ecosystem services, and global impacts such as greenhouse gas exchanges with the atmosphere. In contrast to most research projects, the long-term design of this research enables identification of slow or delayed processes of change in response to management regimes, and allows examination of responses across a broader range of climatic variability. This volume synthesizes this comprehensive inquiry into the ecology of alternative cropping systems, identifying future steps needed on the path to sustainability.