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Toxic Exposures

Toxic Exposures

Author: Phil Brown

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 9780231503259

Category: Medical

Page: 392

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The increase in environmentally induced diseases and the loosening of regulation and safety measures have inspired a massive challenge to established ways of looking at health and the environment. Communities with disease clusters, women facing a growing breast cancer incidence rate, and people of color concerned about the asthma epidemic have become critical of biomedical models that emphasize the role of genetic makeup and individual lifestyle practices. Likewise, scientists have lost patience with their colleagues' and government's failure to adequately address environmental health issues and to safeguard research from corporate manipulation. Focusing specifically on breast cancer, asthma, and Gulf War-related health conditions-"contested illnesses" that have generated intense debate in the medical and political communities-Phil Brown shows how these concerns have launched an environmental health movement that has revolutionized scientific thinking and policy. Before the last three decades of widespread activism regarding toxic exposures, people had little opportunity to get information. Few sympathetic professionals were available, the scientific knowledge base was weak, government agencies were largely unprepared, laypeople were not considered bearers of useful knowledge, and ordinary people lacked their own resources for discovery and action. Brown argues that organized social movements are crucial in recognizing and acting to combat environmental diseases. His book draws on environmental and medical sociology, environmental justice, environmental health science, and social movement studies to show how citizen-science alliances have fought to overturn dominant epidemiological paradigms. His probing look at the ways scientific findings are made available to the public and the changing nature of policy offers a new perspective on health and the environment and the relationship among people, knowledge, power, and authority.

Air Monitoring for Toxic Exposures

Air Monitoring for Toxic Exposures

Author: Henry J. McDermott

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471670575

Category: Science

Page: 688

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Get the Latest from the Field This book offers ready-to-use information for measuring a widevariety of airborne hazardous materials including chemicals, radon,and bioaerosols. It provides the latest procedures forair sampling, collecting biological and bulk samples, evaluatingdermal exposures, and determining the advantages and limitations ofa given air monitoring method.

Toxic Exposures

Toxic Exposures

Author: Susan L. Smith

Publisher: Rutgers University Press

ISBN: 9780813586120

Category: History

Page: 210

View: 172

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Mustard gas is typically associated with the horrors of World War I battlefields and trenches, where chemical weapons were responsible for tens of thousands of deaths. Few realize, however, that mustard gas had a resurgence during the Second World War, when its uses and effects were widespread and insidious. Toxic Exposures tells the shocking story of how the United States and its allies intentionally subjected thousands of their own servicemen to poison gas as part of their preparation for chemical warfare. In addition, it reveals the racialized dimension of these mustard gas experiments, as scientists tested whether the effects of toxic exposure might vary between Asian, Hispanic, black, and white Americans. Drawing from once-classified American and Canadian government records, military reports, scientists’ papers, and veterans’ testimony, historian Susan L. Smith explores not only the human cost of this research, but also the environmental degradation caused by ocean dumping of unwanted mustard gas. As she assesses the poisonous legacy of these chemical warfare experiments, Smith also considers their surprising impact on the origins of chemotherapy as cancer treatment and the development of veterans’ rights movements. Toxic Exposures thus traces the scars left when the interests of national security and scientific curiosity battled with medical ethics and human rights.

Handbook of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Agent Exposures

Handbook of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Agent Exposures

Author: Jerrold B. Leikin

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420044782

Category: Medical

Page: 752

View: 676

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Treating nuclear, biological, and chemical agent exposures presents a unique set of challenges. These scenarios usually involve multiple exposures, sometimes even mass exposures, from a single, often poorly-defined, event. Early symptoms are not distinct and can often be variable. Laboratory analyses may be required from environmental, often nonbiological, specimens. Scene evaluation and pre-hospital decontamination may turn out to be the most important intervention. Hospital resource utilization must be a consideration. Even the pathologist performing autopsies needs adequate preparation. It is with these considerations in mind that the Handbook of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Agent Exposures was created. Taking a concise yet comprehensive, clinical approach to the treatment of these exposures, the authors provide concise information on radiation substances, biological agents, chemical toxins, laboratory tests, and antidotes. The book includes essays on topics such as Field Identification and Decontamination of Toxins, Bioterrorism and the Skin, and Mass Exposures Involving the Pediatric Population. A quick review of the contents will tell you that this book contains the tools you need when facing the formidable tasks of diagnosing and treating nuclear, biological, and chemical agent exposures.

Human Health Risks from Chemical Exposure

Human Health Risks from Chemical Exposure

Author: R. Warren Flint

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0873714350

Category: Science

Page: 322

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More than 100 professionals have contributed to this important book summarizing much of what is known about the issue of chemicals in the Great Lakes environment and the risks these chemicals pose to human health. The book makes significant recommendations for action in policy, communication, education, and research regarding the chemicals and their risks. The views of individuals from government, universities, industries, and public special interest groups in Canada and the United States have been integrated into a comprehensive statement that reflects scenarios that are applicable worldwide.

Assessment of Chemical Exposures

Assessment of Chemical Exposures

Author: Jack E. Daugherty

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781000114775

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 456

View: 770

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Traditionally, industrial hygienists and environmental engineers have been responsible for conducting chemical exposure assessments, however, this task is now becoming a team effort taken on by scientists, businessmen, and policymakers. Assessment of Chemical Exposures: Calculation Methods for Environmental Professionals addresses the expanding scope of exposure assessments in both the workplace and environment. It discusses the basics of gathering data and assessing exposure, including how to estimate exposure to chemicals using fundamental chemical engineering concepts. The book opens with a brief discussion on the history of exposure assessments and provides terms and nomenclature needed for communications between various disciplines involved in exposure assessments. The potential impact of chemical exposures on humans, the environment, and communities is discussed in detail The book also addresses modeling source generation, pathway transport, and receptor impact. With the clear explanations presented in this text, even a novice will be able to practice the art of exposure assessment.

Clinical Environmental Health and Toxic Exposures

Clinical Environmental Health and Toxic Exposures

Author: John Burke Sullivan

Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

ISBN: 068308027X

Category: Medical

Page: 1348

View: 483

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Now in its revised and updated Second Edition, this volume is the most comprehensive and authoritative text in the rapidly evolving field of environmental toxicology. The book provides the objective information that health professionals need to prevent environmental health problems, plan for emergencies, and evaluate toxic exposures in patients.Coverage includes safety, regulatory, and legal issues; clinical toxicology of specific organ systems; emergency medical response to hazardous materials releases; and hazards of specific industries and locations. Nearly half of the book examines all known toxins and environmental health hazards. A Brandon-Hill recommended title.

Review of the Department of Labor's Site Exposure Matrix Database

Review of the Department of Labor's Site Exposure Matrix Database

Author: Institute of Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309268691

Category: Science

Page: 135

View: 955

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Beginning with the development of the atomic bomb during World War II, the United States continued to build nuclear weapons throughout the Cold War. Thousands of people mined and milled uranium, conducted research on nuclear warfare, or worked in nuclear munitions factories around the country from the 1940s through the 1980s. Such work continues today, albeit to a smaller extent. The Department of Energy (DOE) is now responsible for overseeing those sites and facilities, many of which were, and continue to be, run by government contractors. The materials used at those sites were varied and ranged from the benign to the toxic and highly radioactive. Workers at DOE facilities often did not know the identity of the materials with which they worked and often were unaware of health risks related to their use. In many instances, the work was considered top secret, and employees were cautioned not to reveal any work-related information to family or others. Workers could be exposed to both radioactive and nonradioactive toxic substances for weeks or even years. Consequently, some of the workers have developed health problems and continue to have concerns about potential health effects of their exposures to occupational hazards during their employment in the nuclear weapons industry. In response to the concerns expressed by workers and their representatives, DOL asked the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to review the SEM database and its use of a particular database, Haz-Map, as the source of its toxic substance-occupational disease links. Accordingly, this IOM consensus report reflects careful consideration of its charge by the committee, and describes the strengths and shortcomings of both. To complete its task, IOM formed an ad hoc committee of experts in occupational medicine, toxicology, epidemiology, industrial hygiene, public health, and biostatistics to conduct an 18-month study to review the scientific rigor of the SEM database. The committee held two public meetings at which it heard from DOL Division of Energy Employee Occupational Illness Compensation (DEEOIC) representatives, the DOL contractor that developed the SEM database, the developer of the Haz-Map database, DOE worker advocacy groups, and several individual workers. The committee also submitted written questions to DOL to seek clarification of specific issues and received written responses from DEEOIC. The committee's report considers both the strengths and weaknesses of the SEM and the Haz-Map databases, recognizing that the latter was developed first and for a different purpose. The committee then discusses its findings and recommends improvements that could be made in both databases with a focus on enhancing the usability of SEM for both DOL claims examiners and for former DOE workers and their representatives. Review of the Department of Labor's Site Exposure Matrix Database summarizes the committee's findings.